Alexander has been a certified medical massage therapist (CMMT) since 2014.  Below is a list of common medical syndromes and injuries that can be treated with medical message.


Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is an umbrella term for pain and dysfunction of the muscles in and around the jaw. The most important feature is pain, followed by restricted movement of the mandible. Internal and external muscle palpation can help to reduce inflammation in the jaw.

Torticollis is caused by the flexion, extension, or twisting of muscles of the neck beyond their normal stretching. The condition can either develop slowly for people with a family history of the disorder. Torticollis also can develop acutely from trauma or as an adverse reaction to medications. The pain can be treated with specific clavicle and sternum muscle manipulation.  

Similar to torticollis, whiplash is an injury to the soft tissue of your neck when your head and neck are jerked in a whipping motion. Whiplash is treated with specific muscle manipulation, similar to torticollis treatment. 
The anterior scalene, medial scalene, and posterior scalene are three neck muscles that have uneven lengths, similar to a scalene triangle in geometry. Scalene muscles run through a crowded part of the neck. When scalene muscles tighten, nerve entrapment may occur and can cause tingling or numbness in the hand, wrist, or arm. Scalene testing may reduce overall discomfort, and recommended stretches may help with pain. 

Lower back pain (LBP), or lumbago, is a common disorder involving the muscles and bones of the back. LBP affects about 40% of people at some point in their lives. Manipulating the psoas and iliacus abdominal muscles that run from the diaphragm to the inner thigh may significantly decrease LBP pain. 

Athletes are not the only people who have sports injuries or who benefit from sports massages. Pre-sports and post-sports massages may help with range of motion and overall muscle health.

Trigger points, also known as trigger sites and muscle knots, are hyperirritable palpable nodules in taut bands of muscle fibers. Extensive therapeutic knowledge and experience are used in relieving trigger points.

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) manifests as neurovascular symptoms in the upper extremities from pressure on the nerves and vessels in the thoracic outlet area, which is the space between the ribcage and the collar bone. TOS is easy to treat with muscle palpation and manipulation. 

A frozen shoulder is medically referred to as adhesive capsulitis and defined as a shoulder joint with significant loss of range of motion in all directions. Range of motion is limited when the patient attempts motion and when a medical professional attempts to move the joint fully while the patient relaxes. The overall pain can be reduced and the range of motion can be increased with specific stretches.

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a progressively painful hand and arm condition caused by a pinched nerve in the wrist. A number of factors can contribute to carpal tunnel syndrome. Massage therapy can reduce overall pain.

Plantar fasciitis is pain and inflammation of a thick band of tissue called the plantar fascia that runs across the bottom of the foot and connects the heel bone to the toes. Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of heel pain. Massage therapy can help reduce pain and increase range of motion in the foot.

Piriformis syndrome usually starts with pain, tingling, or numbness in the buttocks. The pain can be severe and extend the length of the sciatic nerve, which is called sciatica. Pain occurs when the piriformis muscle compresses the sciatic nerve, often while sitting or running. Climbing stairs, applying firm pressure directly over the piriformis muscle, or sitting for long periods of time also may trigger pain. However, most sciatica cases are not due to piriformis syndrome. Thai massage and trigger point skills are used to reduce pain and increase range of motion. 

"Tennis elbow" and "golfer's elbow" are the two most common types of tendonitis affecting the elbow. Facing the palm forward, pain from tennis elbow is located on the outer side, or lateral aspect, of the elbow. Golfer's elbow is located on the inner side, or medial portion, of the elbow and forearm. Common causes of golfer's elbow and tennis elbow include overuse, inadequate rest between playing, repetitive motion, and strength imbalances.  

The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, keeping the head of your upper arm bone firmly within the shallow socket of the shoulder. A rotator cuff injury can cause a dull ache in the shoulder, which often worsens when you try to sleep on the involved side. A rotator cuff injury occurs most often in people who repeatedly perform overhead motions in their jobs or in sports, such as painters, carpenters, and people who play baseball or tennis. The risk of rotator cuff injury also increases with age.